# Scientific calculator

Today, a calculator is one of the most common electronic devices that allows you to perform all the basic mathematical calculations: addition and subtraction, multiplication and division, calculating percentages, raising to a power, extracting a root, and so on.

More complex, engineering models can also calculate logarithms and differentials, exponents, and trigonometric functions (sin, cos, tg, ctg).

## History of the calculator

The word "calculator" comes from the Latin calculo, which translates as "I count" or "I count." It is noteworthy that calculo, in turn, comes from the word calculus - "pebble", which indirectly confirms the version that in ancient times small stones were used for calculations. As for the first abacus, the progenitor of the modern calculator, they were invented over 3,000 years ago. The samples that have survived to this day were found on the territory of modern Mongolia.

A more complex computing device, the Antikythera Mechanism, was invented in the 3rd-2nd century BC. He allowed to calculate the movement of celestial bodies, as well as to perform the simplest mathematical operations: addition, subtraction and division. One of these mechanisms was found near the island of Antikythera - on a sunken Italian ship.

Another ancient computing device - the abacus - dates back to the 6th century AD, and is a small board with grooves in which pebbles or tokens with drawn numbers were placed in a row. Such devices were widely used in trade between European and Asian countries during the Middle Ages.

### Non-electronic computers

The Antikythera Mechanism, the abacus and the abacus are quite primitive devices used for simple calculations at the dawn of civilization. By the way, the latter (accounts) went out of wide use only at the end of the 20th century - when electronic calculators became affordable for the bulk of buyers. In any case, the inventions of later centuries, from the 17th to the 20th centuries, became the real prerequisites for the creation of an electronic computer.

Thus, in 1643 Blaise Pascal created an adding machine, and in 1673 Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz presented his first adding machine to the general public. In 1876, Pafnuty Lvovich Chebyshev designed a summing apparatus with continuous transmission of tens, and in 1881 this invention was finalized and also made it possible to carry out operations for multiplying and dividing numbers. This is where the history of non-electronic computers ends, and gives way to technological devices that run on electricity.

### Electronic calculators

The first electronic calculator with relays and semiconductor parts was created in 1957 by the Japanese company Casio, had the dimensions of a cabinet and weighed over 100 kilograms. In 1961, the UK developed a more compact ANITA Mark VIII device using gas-discharge lamps, and in 1964 the USA and the USSR presented their developments, the Friden EC-130 and Vega models, respectively.

The world's first engineering calculator in 1965 was the Wang LOCI-2 apparatus from the American company Wang Laboratories. In addition to arithmetic operations, he could calculate logarithms. In the same year, the Japanese company Casio introduced the first model of a computer with electronic memory, capable of remembering and repeating completed operations. And in 1969, Hewlett-Packard presented a programmable calculator for scientific and technical calculations HP 9100A with 16 memory registers. It was already quite compact, weighing only 16 kilograms and could be placed on the table.

During the 1980s, calculators became smaller, cheaper, and became available not only to large organizations, but also to individual buyers. Models familiar to us with solar batteries and liquid crystal displays appeared on sale, which are still being produced, despite the fact that today there is a calculator in any smartphone.

## Interesting facts

- Numerical values on push-button calculators increase from bottom to top, not from top to bottom (as on mobile phones and touch devices).
- The upside down numbers on the calculator board can be used to form different words: google (376006), boogie (316008) or hell (7734).
- Modern LCD electronic calculators can run complex computer applications. For example, the legendary shooter of the 90s Doom was able to run on the HP Prime G2 model.

Summing up, we can say that push-button calculators, especially engineering calculators, have not ceased to be relevant and are widely in demand among specialists. And on computer equipment with Internet access, online calculators are most common, allowing you to make any mathematical calculations.